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Notice: The called constructor method for WP_Widget in ReallySimpleTwitterWidget is deprecated since version 4.3.0! Use
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مبدأ تكامل الأسواق لخدمة المستثمر | اكاديمية التداول
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مبدأ تكامل الأسواق لخدمة المستثمر

 

يعتبر كل من سوق النقد وسوق الأوراق المالية وجهان لعمله واحدة . إذ يتكامل دور كل منها لتحقيق الأهداف الاستثمارية والأهداف التمويلية . ولهذا، فالتعامل معهما ككيانات بديلة، أو منفصلة أو مستقلة سواء لأغراض التمويل والاستثمار يعتبر منافيا للأصول العلمية ، كما ويعتبر تمهيدا منطقيا للدخول في الكم من المشاكل والعوائق التي يواجهها الاقتصاد .

وتتميز الدول المتقدمة ، والدول ذات الاقتصاديات الناشئة بوجود أسواق مالية نشطة يتكامل فيها الشقين النقدي والرأسمالي ، تقوم بتوفير الفرص الاستثمارية الجيدة بتعبئة المدخرات لأغراض الإنتاج. كما تقوم بتوفير الفرص التمويلية للوفاء بكل الاحتياجات التمويلية للنشاط الاقتصادي والانتاجى في الأجلين القصير والطويل . فيلزم لقيام إقتصاد قوى وكفء توفر التمويل اللازم ، وهذا يتطلب وجود النوعين من الأسواق لتلافى المشاكل الناجمة عن الاعتماد على أحدهم دون الأخر . ومن الظواهر السائدة فى العالم النامي الاعتماد المتزايد على التمويل من الجهاز المصرفي بصفة أساسية وضعف الدور الذي يلعبه سوق الأوراق المالية كمصدر للتمويل وما يترتب على ذلك من قصور الكفاءة التمويلية وارتفاع تكلفة التمويل بصفة عامة .

 

الاستثمار فى الودائع المصرفية – متى وكيف ؟

 

يتباين المستثمرون فيما بينهم من حيث طبائعهم وتفضيلاتهم الاستثمارية. فمنهم الكاره للمخاطر ولا يرغب فى تحمل أية نوع من أنواع المخاطر الاستثمارية . وفى سبيل ذلك فهو يقبل الحصول على الحد الأدنى من العائد (وهو العائد الخالي من المخاطر) ، كما يعتمد على وجود مؤسسات مالية تقوم بتحمل تلك المخاطر نيابة عنه نظير تنازله لها عن جزء من العائد. هذا بالإضافة إلى ان هذا النوع من المستثمرين يفضل دائما سهولة استرداده لأمواله من مستخدميها فور حاجته لها . ولهذا يفضل هؤلاء المستثمرون خدمات البنوك لأنها انسب آلية متاحة تساعده على استثمار أمواله طبقا لهذه الشروط . وتمثل استثمارات هذا النوع من أصحاب المدخرات المصدر الرئيسي للأموال المستخدمة فى توفير التمويل قصير الأجل لمن يحتاجه من أصحاب الأعمال . وتلعب النظم المصرفية وقوانين البنوك المركزية دورا هاما فى حماية أموال المستثمرين المودعة لدى البنوك من المخاطر كما تضمن حقوقهم فى سرعة استردادها فور طلبها.

 

الاستثمار في الأوراق المالية – متى وكيف؟

 

أما النوع الأخر من أصحاب المدخرات المستثمرين، فهم على العكس من حيث استعدادهم لتحمل المخاطر نظير الحصول على عوائد عالية تتناسب ودرجة الخطر المقابلة، ومن حيث استعدادهم لإتاحة أموالهم لاستخدام الغير لآجال طويلة نسبيا. ويعتمد هذا النوع من المستثمرين على أنفسهم غالبا في اتخاذ قراراتهم الاستثمارية، وبشكل مباشر، من خلال الدراسة الوافية للفرصة الاستثمارية المتاحة ومن خلال تتبع المعلومات التي تتوفر بصفة مستمرة عنها، ومن خلال التقدير الجيد لدرجة المخاطر المحتملة. وتتيح سوق الأوراق المالية الفرص الاستثمارية المناسبة لمثل هؤلاء المستثمرين كما تعتمد على أموالهم كمصدر لتمويل الوحدات الإنتاجية للآجال طويلة. ففضلا عن تمتع المستثمرين في الأوراق المالية بالعائد المرتفع، يتمتع هؤلاء بإمكانية تحقيق مكاسب رأسمالية نتيجة بيع ما يمتلكونه من أوراق مالية في الأوقات التي يرتفع فيها السعر السوقي لها. وبالطبع فهم على استعداد أيضا لتحمل الخسائر الرأسمالية إذا ما اضطروا للبيع في الأوقات التي تنخفض فيها أسعار هذه الأوراق.

وتلعب بورصات الأوراق المالية باعتبارها سوقا منظما لتداول الأوراق المالية بيعا وشراء بين المستثمرين، دورا هاما في تشجيع هؤلاء المستثمرين على توجيه مدخراتهم لسوق الأوراق المالية اغتناما للفرص الاستثمارية المتاحة وتحقيق للعوائد المرغوبة. الأمر الذي يساعد بالتبعية على توفير فرص التمويل للنشاط الإنتاجي بالتكلفة المناسبة.

 

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